Japan is a modern, technologically-advanced society with a generally high standard of living. Throughout history the Sino-Tibetan influence on Japanese culture has been profound and Confucian codes of conduct may be ascribed to many aspects of modern Japanese life, including the dictates of loyalty and obligation, deference to elders and superiors and emphasis on ‘face’.
In Japan, sex was not viewed in terms of morality, but rather in terms of pleasure, social position, and social responsibility. While modern attitudes to homosexuality have changed, this is frequently true even today. Like the premodern West, only sexual acts were seen as being homosexual or heterosexual, not the people performing such acts.
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